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Analysis of White Teeth

            Zadie Smith presents a panoramic approach to the multicultural British Society. The main plot of the novel revolves around three families that lived in north-western London but had different ethnic origins. The author tends to separate from the norm of many works of literature by British Novelists who dealt with Black experiences in Britain. As such, the author presents an array of themes that includes; the Second World War experiences, first-generation migration in the Diaspora, young British culture, and family conflicts between different generations, religious fanatics, and biogenetical engineering. The novel has diverse characters, different discourses, and varying time frames. However, it revolves around the central issue of the problem of an individual to develop an identity in the multicultural society as well as establishing a new national identity in postcolonial Britain. For the purpose of the essay, the main focus lay on three aspects; Nation and identity, Immigration, and History and tradition. The author presents the past life and origins of the characters by using many minor stories. The stories act as a historical bond between the past, the present, and the future. White Teeth is a postcolonial and multicultural novel that presents the historical consciousness in two different ways. The author utilizes racial history as well personal history to reveal the history and traditions. Smith expounds racial history that examines the colonial history of Britain as a colonizer by use of stories of immigrant and the different ethnic families in the novel. History and tradition have a significant impact to the familial and personal generation immigrant.

Immigration Experiences

            Immigration is an evident theme throughout the novel. The concept involves the experiences of the main characters that had to deal with different occurrences in their life. They had to live between cultures and deal with the effects, actions, and the choices of the people around them. They experience challenges in handling race, religion, history, and ethnicity differences as they arose.

           The immigration experiences from the novel are evident from the lives of different characters. Poppy Burt-Jones reveals what happened to a culture when immigrated or unlearned (Smith, 2003, 130). According to her, it is good to learn a culture from others in certain aspects like music. Her descriptions show that the children born or immigrated from a particular culture do not necessarily relate to their culture in musical aspects. For instance, she asked children about the music they listened to often and Millat claimed that he was fonder of music from other cultures. He sings Michael Jackson’s music without realizing that he ought to mention the music from his culture. It is clear that there exists a culture between the major cultures of American and the Hindu. In another instance, Magid Iqbal welcomes young friend visitors who refer to him as Mark Smith at his digression (Smith, 2003, 126). His mother answers the door and meets some boys looking for Mark Smith but cannot understand it until Magid shows up and moves along with them. Magid’s mother is worried that her son was referred to with a more American and modern name than the normal cultural name used to. It is evident that Magid desires to detach from his Ethnic differences with the society and appear modernized and not leveled by his culture.

            Samad feels stereotyped at some instance due to immigration experiences. He faced criticism and harassment for his desire to share about his culture with other people other than a waiter (Smith, 2003, 49). He wanted to state that he had been a student, a scientist, and a soldier. He also wanted to declare that he is muslin other than working as a waiter to take and act on customer’s orders. The experience reveals the challenges faced by immigrants to new regions with no root and history. The fact that Samad could not express himself as he desired reveals of the conditions faced by other people like him. He desired to let others know that his work was not enough to describe him since he had been a student, scientist, and a soldier. Thus, he ought to enjoy similar privileges to the people who had such qualities. However, being an immigrant was a hindrance to him. For Mickey, he named all his children Abdul in such a way that he would teach them that it was useless to assume high ranks than others in the society (Smith, 2003, 156). It was a good strategy and hopeful that it would serve the intended purpose. However, it was the source of confusion in later years since they had to add an English name to the common Abdul. Mickey attempted to avoid the significant impact of immigration that forces humans to conform to the prevailing culture. It appears as if there is an inferior culture struggling to survive amidst a superior culture. The need to add an English name to the chosen name shows the struggle of adapting in a new culture as an effect of immigration. There is always an instance in which people disown their ethnic identity for them to fit within the larger society. The experiences are among the many issues faced by immigrants in foreign nations. They have to adapt to the new culture and traditions as a way of fitting in and sharing in the values of the foreign culture.  

            The narrative gives different perspectives of the first and the second generation migrant life in Britain. The affected people struggle to construct their personal identity in the foreign region and the problem of self-realization in relation to the White society. It confronts the people of different origins with the problem of racism and lack of recognition that labels them as different. Smith focuses on the conflict created by the mixed cultures and assimilation to the superior culture. Also featured are the struggles to retain the original cultural identity. The early forms of migration and invasion by other nationalities led to differences of culture and language but not on the race and color. Thus, the struggle for personal and national identity has been a major issue in different cultures.        

Cultural Identity

            The concept of identity in the context of the 21st Century is a time marked by globalization and immigration, and a transition period after colonialism. The novel White Teeth by Zadie Smith provides a good basis for discussing the concept of identity in Britain. Cultural identity is a significant aspect of every society since it helps it to have a sense of self-worth and acceptance. The discussion on national and cultural identity focuses on four main characters and how they struggled to achieve their identity namely Iqbal, Magid, and Millat. Identity, in the context of sociology, is a person's conception and expression of their own (self-identity) and others' individuality or group affiliations (such as national identity and cultural identity). However, living in the complex and globalized world, challenges the identity of some cultures. Identity concept is one of the main things that make people similar or different from one another.

            The theme of cultural identity takes a central stage as one of the main concepts developed in the book. For instance, Magid is sent off to Bangladesh by his parents to learn about Bangladeshi Islam. It is likely that he would become strong in his Muslim faith and Bangladeshi identity. However, upon coming back from Bangladesh he is an atheist, and his brother Millat, who is home in Britain, becomes a militant atheist. It is contrary to the general expectation after the two went through different cultures and purported transition periods. Speaking of Magid and Millat, they are part of the most important family in the book. Their parent’s names are Iqbal and Alsanna. The parents are native to Bangladesh but moved to Great Britain. The family has a generational gap and reveals the perceptions of national identity comparing to the first and second generation.

            England, like a few other developed countries in the world, is a country marked by multiculturalism. After the two world wars, many world powers like England had colonies in different parts of the globe. After colonization, countries reverted to the native people. However, many people from former British colonies like India, Jamaica, and Pakistan, had, and still have the opportunity to immigrate to Great Britain. This has led to a more multicultural and multi-ethnic Britain which raises the issue of cultural identity. Andrea Levy, author of “This is my England,” and born to Jamaican parents states, “Any history book will show that England has never been an exclusive club, but rather a hybrid nation.” Thus, the Great Britain has inhabitants from diverse cultures and nationalities.

History and tradition and its relation to cultural identity

            White Teeth goes back in time and reveals experiences to understand the roots of everything. The author shows the effects of the first generation to the second generation in the form of foreign traditions and how they have to ply between the two cultures. The second generation doesn’t feel like it belongs to the culture that they were born and raised in. They are sometimes confused, unlike their parents who were, at least, part of the majority culture when they were back in their homeland. They have a feeling of not being sure about their real identity. Samad brings it into perspective when she says, “What am I going to do? Go back to Bengal, Or to Delhi? Who would have such Enlightenment there? To England? Who would have such an Indian?” (Smith, 2003, 112) The character Iqbal is from Bangladesh. He is a devout Muslim, but his has ties to his national identity since his country of origin has overwhelming influence by Islam in their culture. However, he does lack a definite identity since he was part of the majority culture when he lived in Bangladesh. Even though he knows his roots and his own cultural identity, he still experiences an identity crisis in England. He doesn’t consider himself English. He makes it clear that he does not want to integrate into “normal” British society, even though he served in the British armed forces. Samad Iqbal states, “Don’t call me Sam,” he growled… “I’m not one of your English matey-boys. My name is Samad Miah Iqbal. Not Sam. Not Sammy. And not- God forbid- Samuel. It is Samad” (Smith, 2003, 112). He also makes it clear that he wants to retain his national roots. The important issue for Iqbal is to know his roots, which is connected to his Muslim faith. Smith states, “To Samad, the tradition was culture, and culture led to roots, and these were good, they were untainted principles. That didn’t mean he would live by them, abide by them or grow in the manner they demanded,” (Smith, 2003, 193). He also states, “I don’t wish to be a modern man! I wish to live like I was always meant to live! I wish to return to the East,” (Smith, 2003, 145).  

            Throughout the book, the author presents a progression of Millat’s search for an identity. He doesn’t know his true cultural identity. He says, “Underneath it all, there remained an ever-present anger and hurt, the feeling of belonging nowhere that comes to people who belong everywhere” (Smith, 2003, 225). His anger and hurt is echoed in the Pakistani-British author, and play tighter, Hanif Kureshi’s essay “The Rainbow Sign.” Kureshi states, “I was desperately embarrassed and afraid of being identified with these loathed aliens.” It is evident that Millat desired for revenge and realized that he had similar feelings to black people and radical Muslims.

            Magid was sent back to Bangladesh to learn about being a proper Bangladeshi Muslim. Ironically, he ended up not being interested in his Bengali or Muslim roots. Of all the family members, he integrated the most in English society. He has a sense of belonging to English society and doesn’t have strong nationalistic ties to Bangladesh. Since Magid has a strong national identity in being English, many of his cultural ways are English as well. His style of speaking is very English. He even dresses and behaves like English people. He even doesn’t have a religion like a lot of native English people. It is perhaps the most ironic of all, since his father sent him to Bangladesh to experience their cultural ways and how to be a good Muslim. Saraswati talks to Magid and says, “Too often we Indians, we Bengalis, we Pakistanis, throw up our hands and cry ‘Fate!’ in the face of history. But many of us, uneducated, many of us do not understand the world; we must be more like the English. The English fight fate to death. The do not listen to history unless it is telling them what they wish to hear” (Smith, 2003, 228).

            In conclusion, immigrants continue to struggle with identity due to different changes experienced in their foreign nations. Immigration transformed the lives of the different cultures presented in the novel. The understanding of the history and traditions of a select culture is crucial for explaining the struggle towards attaining cultural identity by the immigrants in their foreign nations. There are several instances and events that reveal the three major themes described as evident in the novel. Each has a distinct significance throughout the novel as discussed. The maintenance of a personal identity in a multicultural society is challenging as evidenced in the novel.

Work cited

Levy, Andrea “This Is My England.” The Guardian. Saturday, February 19, 2000 Retrieved from http://enjoyment.independent.co.uk/books/features/article67727.ece."

Moss, Laura. "The Politics of Everyday Hybridity: Zadie Smith's White Teeth." Wasafiri 18.39 (2003): 11-17.

Rushdie, Salman. "The New Empire within Britain" New Society 9 (1982): 417-421.

Smith, Zadie. “White Teeth: A Novel.” Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2003. ISBN 1400075505, 9781400075508

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Cultural Identity and Immigration experiences and their relevance as evidence in “White Teeth” by Smith

            Zadie Smith presents a panoramic approach to the multicultural British Society. The main plot of the novel revolves around three families that lived in north-western London but had different ethnic origins. The author tends to separate from the norm of many works of literature by British Novelists who dealt with Black experiences in Britain. As such, the author presents an array of themes that includes; the Second World War experiences, first-generation migration in the Diaspora, young British culture, and family conflicts between different generations, religious fanatics, and biogenetical engineering. The novel has diverse characters, different discourses, and varying time frames. However, it revolves around the central issue of the problem of an individual to develop an identity in the multicultural society as well as establishing a new national identity in postcolonial Britain. For the purpose of the essay, the main focus lay on three aspects; Nation and identity, Immigration, and History and tradition. The author presents the past life and origins of the characters by using many minor stories. The stories act as a historical bond between the past, the present, and the future. White Teeth is a postcolonial and multicultural novel that presents the historical consciousness in two different ways. The author utilizes racial history as well personal history to reveal the history and traditions. Smith expounds racial history that examines the colonial history of Britain as a colonizer by use of stories of immigrant and the different ethnic families in the novel. History and tradition have a significant impact to the familial and personal generation immigrant.

Immigration Experiences

            Immigration is an evident theme throughout the novel. The concept involves the experiences of the main characters that had to deal with different occurrences in their life. They had to live between cultures and deal with the effects, actions, and the choices of the people around them. They experience challenges in handling race, religion, history, and ethnicity differences as they arose.

            The immigration experiences from the novel are evident from the lives of different characters. Poppy Burt-Jones reveals what happened to a culture when immigrated or unlearned (Smith, 130). According to her, it is good to learn a culture from others in certain aspects like music. Her descriptions show that the children born or immigrated from a particular culture do not necessarily relate to their culture in musical aspects. For instance, she asked children about the music they listened to often and Millat claimed that he was fonder of music from other cultures. He sings Michael Jackson’s music without realizing that he ought to mention the music from his culture. It is clear that there exists a culture between the major cultures of American and the Hindu. In another instance, Magid Iqbal welcomes young friend visitors who refer to him as Mark Smith at his digression (Smith, 126). His mother answers the door and meets some boys looking for Mark Smith but cannot understand it until Magid shows up and moves along with them. Magid’s mother is worried that her son was referred to with a more American and modern name than the normal cultural name used to. It is evident that Magid desires to detach from his Ethnic differences with the society and appear modernized and not leveled by his culture.

            Samad feels stereotyped at some instance due to immigration experiences. He faced criticism and harassment for his desire to share about his culture with other people other than a waiter (Smith, 49). He wanted to state that he had been a student, a scientist, and a soldier. He also wanted to declare that he is Muslim other than working as a waiter to take and act on customer’s orders. The experience reveals the challenges faced by immigrants to new regions with no root and history. The fact that Samad could not express himself as he desired reveals of the conditions faced by other people like him. He desired to let others know that his work was not enough to describe him since he had been a student, scientist, and a soldier. Thus, he ought to enjoy similar privileges to the people who had such qualities. However, being an immigrant was a hindrance to him. For Mickey, he named all his children Abdul in such a way that he would teach them that it was useless to assume high ranks than others in the society (Smith, 156). It was a good strategy and hopeful that it would serve the intended purpose. However, it was the source of confusion in later years since they had to add an English name to the common Abdul. Mickey attempted to avoid the significant impact of immigration that forces humans to conform to the prevailing culture. It appears as if there is an inferior culture struggling to survive amidst a superior culture. The need to add an English name to the chosen name shows the struggle of adapting in a new culture as an effect of immigration. There is always an instance in which people disown their ethnic identity for them to fit within the larger society. The experiences are among the many issues faced by immigrants in foreign nations. They have to adapt to the new culture and traditions as a way of fitting in and sharing in the values of the foreign culture.  

            The narrative gives different perspectives of the first and the second generation migrant life in Britain. The affected people struggle to construct their personal identity in the foreign region and the problem of self-realization in relation to the White society. It confronts the people of different origins with the problem of racism and lack of recognition that labels them as different. Smith focuses on the conflict created by the mixed cultures and assimilation to the superior culture. Also featured are the struggles to retain the original cultural identity. The early forms of migration and invasion by other nationalities led to differences of culture and language but not on the race and color. Thus, the struggle for personal and national identity has been a major issue in different cultures.        

Cultural Identity

            The concept of identity in the context of the 21st Century is a time marked by globalization and immigration, and a transition period after colonialism. The novel White Teeth by Zadie Smith provides a good basis for discussing the concept of identity in Britain. Cultural identity is a significant aspect of every society since it helps it to have a sense of self-worth and acceptance. The discussion on national and cultural identity focuses on four main characters and how they struggled to achieve their identity namely Iqbal, Magid, and Millat. Identity, in the context of sociology, is a person's conception and expression of their own (self-identity) and others' individuality or group affiliations (such as national identity and cultural identity). However, living in the complex and globalized world, challenges the identity of some cultures. Identity concept is one of the main things that make people similar or different from one another.

            The theme of cultural identity takes a central stage as one of the main concepts developed in the book. For instance, Magid is sent off to Bangladesh by his parents to learn about Bangladeshi Islam. It is likely that he would become strong in his Muslim faith and Bangladeshi identity. However, upon coming back from Bangladesh he is an atheist, and his brother Millat, who is home in Britain, becomes a militant atheist. His father says that, “That is the very reason I sent the child there – to understand that we are weak, that we are not in control. What does Islam mean? What does the word, the very word, mean?” (Smith, 288). Thus, Magid’s father wanted his son to learn another culture though it was challenging for him. It is contrary to the general expectation after the two went through different cultures and purported transition periods. The author states that, “Magid wanted his father to be a doctor, not a one-handed waiter; and this month Magid had converted all these desires into a wish to join in with the Harvest Festival like Mark Smith would. Like everybody else would” (Z. Smith, 151). The excerpt reveals of Magid’s desire to change his culture as he searched for cultural identity. Speaking of Magid and Millat, they are part of the most important family in the book. Their parent’s names are Iqbal and Alsanna. The parents are native to Bangladesh but moved to Great Britain. The family has a generational gap and reveals the perceptions of national identity comparing to the first and second generation.

            England, like a few other developed countries in the world, is a country marked by multiculturalism. After the two world wars, many world powers like England had colonies in different parts of the globe. After colonization, countries reverted to the native people. However, many people from former British colonies like India, Jamaica, and Pakistan, had, and still have the opportunity to immigrate to Great Britain. This has led to a more multicultural and multi-ethnic Britain which raises the issue of cultural identity. Levy (2000) the author of “This is my England,” explains that, any history book will show that England has never been an exclusive club, but rather a hybrid nation.” Thus, the Great Britain has inhabitants from diverse cultures and nationalities that manifest multiculturalism. The issue is evident in the novel as demonstrated by the cultural diversity of Britain throughout the story line.  

History and tradition and its relation to cultural identity

            White Teeth goes back in time and reveals experiences to understand the roots of everything. The author shows the effects of the first generation to the second generation in the form of foreign traditions and how they have to ply between the two cultures. The second generation doesn’t feel like it belongs to the culture that they were born and raised in. They are sometimes confused, unlike their parents who were, at least, part of the majority culture when they were back in their homeland. They have a feeling of not being sure about their real identity. Samad brings it into perspective when she says, “What am I going to do? Go back to Bengal, Or to Delhi? Who would have such Enlightenment there? To England? Who would have such an Indian?” (Smith, 112) The character Iqbal is from Bangladesh. He is a devout Muslim, but his has ties to his national identity since his country of origin has overwhelming influence by Islam in their culture. However, he does lack a definite identity since he was part of the majority culture when he lived in Bangladesh. Even though he knows his roots and his own cultural identity, he still experiences an identity crisis in England. He doesn’t consider himself English. He makes it clear that he does not want to integrate into “normal” British society, even though he served in the British armed forces. Samad Iqbal states, “Don’t call me Sam,” he growled… “I’m not one of your English matey-boys. My name is Samad Miah Iqbal. Not Sam. Not Sammy. And not- God forbid- Samuel. It is Samad” (Smith, 112). He also makes it clear that he wants to retain his national roots. The important issue for Iqbal is to know his roots, which is connected to his Muslim faith. Smith states, “To Samad, the tradition was culture, and culture led to roots, and these were good, they were untainted principles. That didn’t mean he would live by them, abide by them or grow in the manner they demanded,” (Smith, 193). He also states, “I don’t wish to be a modern man! I wish to live like I was always meant to live! I wish to return to the East,” (Smith, 145).  

            Throughout the book, the author presents a progression of Millat’s search for an identity. He doesn’t know his true cultural identity. He says, “Underneath it all, there remained an ever-present anger and hurt, the feeling of belonging nowhere that comes to people who belong everywhere” (Smith, 225).

            Magid was sent back to Bangladesh to learn about being a proper Bangladeshi Muslim. Ironically, he ended up not being interested in his Bengali or Muslim roots. Of all the family members, he integrated the most in English society. He has a sense of belonging to English society and doesn’t have strong nationalistic ties to Bangladesh. Since Magid has a strong national identity in being English, many of his cultural ways are English as well. His style of speaking is very English. He even dresses and behaves like English people. He even doesn’t have a religion like a lot of native English people. It is perhaps the most ironic of all, since his father sent him to Bangladesh to experience their cultural ways and how to be a good Muslim. Saraswati talks to Magid and says, “Too often we Indians, we Bengalis, we Pakistanis, throw up our hands and cry ‘Fate!’ in the face of history. But many of us, uneducated, many of us do not understand the world; we must be more like the English. The English fight fate to death. The do not listen to history unless it is telling them what they wish to hear” (Smith, 228).

            In conclusion, immigrants continue to struggle with identity due to different changes experienced in their foreign nations. Immigration transformed the lives of the different cultures presented in the novel. The understanding of the history and traditions of a select culture is crucial for explaining the struggle towards attaining cultural identity by the immigrants in their foreign nations. There are several instances and events that reveal the three major themes described as evident in the novel. Each has a distinct significance throughout the novel as discussed. The maintenance of a personal identity in a multicultural society is challenging as evidenced in the novel. The different characters portrayed in the novel struggle to identify their cultural identity after immigration to Britain. They had their history and traditions that they used to and found it challenging to put up with the new culture. The novel is essential in expounding the themes of cultural identity, immigration, and its relationship to history and traditions of the select culture.  

Works cited

Levy, Andrea“This Is My England.” The Guardian. Saturday, February 19, 2000 Retrieved from http://enjoyment.independent.co.uk/books/features/article67727.ece."

Smith, Zadie. “White Teeth: A Novel.” Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2003. ISBN 1400075505, 9781400075508

Annotated Bibliography about Nation’s Identity

Small place by Jamaica Kincaid

            The book is a combination of four loosely structured and untitled sections. The first part involves the narration by Kincaid on the experiences of the readers and her thoughts as a hypothetical tourist in Antigua. Kincaid describes the reader as a witness of the great natural beauty of Antigua Island. The island is a source of refuge away from the harsh conditions of the lives of people living there. The author reveals a sort of information not familiar to many people. The tour by the reader has the descriptions of the mansions built on the island with resources acquired through corruption and criminal acts. The author mentions a deserted library that awaits repairs after an earlier earthquake a decade ago. The tour around the island ends in a hotel and Kincaid concludes the section with her views on the moral decadence of being a tourist.

            Nation’s identity represents a sense of belonging to a Nation or a particular region. Nation’s Identity encompasses the traditions, cultures, language, and politics of a particular region and allows the represented individuals to express themselves about their country of affiliation. The text selected presents the aspects of post-colonial and post-slavery life on the Island of Antigua. The problem of Antigua’s identity as a nation is evident by the controversy of whether it is a tourist resort, a postcolonial nation, or a neocolonialist territory. The author reveals of the journey of Antigua as a Nation towards self-realization. The tourist resort issue hinders the ability of the nation to realize its identity even though it was the pathway to the realization. When many tourists move to a region, they tend to change most of the things practiced by the natives thereby compromising their identity.

Culture and Imperialism by Edward W. Said

            “Culture and imperialism” comprises a collection of essays on Said. They examine the lectures and articles that incorporate culture and imperialism as the main themes. The involvement of Said in the Arab world is an issue of discussion by many writers. The writers consider how Said became involved with politics and Palestinian independence movement as well as showing the limits of the involvement. Said opposed the West and their trends of colonization.  

            The book calls for the change in perspective and understanding of the Western cultural archive and proposes new ideas for the cultural criticism in the 90s. Said shows the difference between imperialism and colonialism and also their linkages. Said defines imperialism as thinking about, settling, and controlling a land that one doesn’t possess. According to the author, imperialism has survived the disappearance of the colonial empires. The text has a rough chronological outline that covers the last two hundred years and emphasizes space rather than time. According to Said, Culture should have a global aspect equal to that of the European empires in the Nineteenth Century. Said contrasts the approaches of the Western and Third World writers who wrote in the late or post-colonial period and were not contemporary with the writers of the high imperial years. Said uses the Third World authors to critique the Western views as he expounds on imperialism and culture. He shows the alterations between the general and the specific using the general context from the secondary sources.

            An analysis of the text reveals that imperialism and culture are closely related in which they have an effect on a nation’s identity. A culture that has significant influence from imperialism usually compromises on the identity of a Nation since the residents tend to adopt the introduced trends in their way of life. It is a crucial aspect of opposing colonialism.

The Location of Culture by Bhabha

                        According to Bhabha, the discussions about culture should be expanded to examine the divergent movements within modernity and post-modernity. The process of developing to modernity is progressive and requires political action to be effective. His suggestion of political action involves writing a theory to explain certain issues that gives pleasure to his work. The cultural aspect is significant in describing nation’s identity. As identified in a Small Place, culture influences the identity of a Nation. The residents of a particular nation are subject to the prevailing culture that can have effects from colonialism that Bhabha describes as resulting in hybridity. The description of a nation’s identity requires a close examination of the culture since it shows the traditions that define the true identity of a nation.

            The text is an assemblage of different important essays by Bhabha that allows the examination of his contribution to literary criticism. Bhabha is a self-described postcolonial critic by whom he compares with Edward Said and well known for the theory of cultural hybridity. According to Bhabha, hybridity results from different forms of colonization that lead to cultural collisions and interactions. The attempt to exercise colonial power over a nation results in the development of hybridity. The aspect of hybridity contradicts the attempts to restore and control the traditional cultures. The major areas of concern are race, gender, community, and nationality. Bhabha attempts to elaborate on the theories of cultural production and identity by exploring their intersections closely. In this text, Bhabha provides different readings from the past to the present. The text presents a new approach to describing cultures and their development. He also describes some cultures as appearing between other dominant cultures.

Critique Articles on Nation’s Identity

Uberoi, Varun, Marco Antonsich, and Tatiana Matejskova. "The ‘Parekh Report’ – National Identities without Nations and Nationalism." Ethnicities 15.4 (2015): 509-526. Academic Search Premier.

            The authors show that the Commission for Multi- Ethnic Britain’s report has a reflection of an unnoticed way of thinking about the nature and importance of national identities developed since the 1970s. The article commissioned by ‘Parekh Report’ explainsabout National identities without nations and nationalism. The information presented regards multiculturalists who advocate for national identities. There are few multiculturalists who study the methods used to define national identities. The article helps to fill the information gap by highlighting the important aspects of defining national identities. The fashion of thinking about nation’s identities avoids the questionable ways used by conservative and liberal nationalists discuss the nature and worth of national identities. It also provides an alternative to the methods offered in discussing the two aspects of national identities. Thus, the commission provides a reflection on a criticized approach to national identities by multiculturalists and how they think about it in a peculiar and important method.  

            According to my analysis, the significance of the article in describing national identity is evident in various aspects by focusing on the way multiculturalists view and define national identities. Multiculturalism advocates for the acceptance of diverse cultures and their use for the benefit of a nation. The realization of National identity depends on the ability to incorporate the different cultures within a nation. Additionally, multiculturalism entails the ability to consider the interlinkages between different cultures that form the basis of national identities. The self-realization of national identity should be a road map towards the achievement of multiculturalism that adopts all the crucial aspects of a society. The major challenge identified in defining national identity is the lack of proper methods of handling the different aspects that result from multiculturalism. The article compares with the ideas of hybridism since multiculturalism is a causative agent to hybridity. Thus, it reinforces the ideas presented by Bhabha in the Location of Culture.        

Rembold, Elfie, and Peter Carrier. "Space And Identity: Constructions Of National Identities In An Age Of Globalisation." National Identities 13.4 (2011): 361-377. Academic Search Premier.

            The article focuses on space and identity as a method of constructing national identities in an age of globalization. The author enquires how the notions of national identities are evident at a period of globalization that undermines the nation and its power. The aspects of globalization exposed the transnational, postcolonial, and the global aspects of constructing identity above the narrow borders of a nation. The article emphasizes the importance of borders and national attachments which are crucial in defining national identity.

            The studies of national identity require an inquiry of whether national identities are pertinent in a period of increased globalization. It is important to understand whether the notions of nation and national hood are crucial in the global perspectives. Nations and nationalism are related to State and territory that offer reinforcement to each other. Thus, the loosening of the political strongholds of a State results in the reorganization of its territories and social differentiations that alter the national identities. The main themes that guide the article relate to aspects of how globalization features like migration and borderless flow of goods influence the identity constructions.  

            The discussion of the impacts of globalization on the construction of national identity is important in defining the space and identity of particular cultures within a nation. National identity is influenced by globalization due to the different changes that arise from globalization. The issues of territory and national attachments are crucial in explaining national identity through the realization of the importance of the identity. The article focuses on globalization as a method of constructing national identity that in turn compares with the ideas of “A small Place” since tourism is a result of globalization. Thus, globalization helped Antiqua nation to identify its identity even though the residents viewed tourism as a hindrance to self realization.        

Bruner, M. Lane. "Rhetorical Studies And National Identity Construction." National Identities 13.4 (2011): 403-414. Academic Search Premier.

            Lane focuses on the rhetorical studies and national identity construction by examining the role of rhetorical processes in constituting national identity. The description of national identity through rhetoric is challenging because it requires a comprehension of the constructive role of history, economics, politics, philosophy, and other disciplines. National identity should manifest as a wide range of forms that involve different factors. The legal manifestation of national identity occurs through constitution building, language and immigration laws, international agreements, and laws concerning individual and corporate rights. It also manifests ethnically through the construction of communities based on physical and genetic traits, financial systems, and economic policies. Thus, the construction of national identity occurs through the combination of various elements through the medium of rhetoric. The means of overcoming the difficulties encountered in understanding the rhetorical is crucial for understanding the complex phenomenon of national identity.

            The manifestation of national identity through the use of the different aspects described through the medium of rhetoric is important in understanding the real meaning of identity. The factors outlined in the construction of national identity are helpful in expounding the aspects of understanding cultural identity. The realization of national identity as described in “A Small Place” dwells on different cultures similar to the issues raised in the text. The information presented in the article is important in understanding how to construct national identity. The development of national identity should have a basis in the legal, social, economic, and physical aspects. They help to ensure that the realization of national identities has a focus on different aspects other than on the cultural aspect in isolation. As exemplified in the main text “A small place”, a culture is crucial in understanding national identity. In relation to other texts, the article examines the construction of national identity through a range of different factors other than culture and globalization.

Work Cited

Bruner, M. Lane. "Rhetorical Studies And National Identity Construction." National Identities  13.4 (2011): 403-414. Academic Search Premier.

Homi Bhabha, “The Location of Culture”, London: Routledge, 1994.

Jamaica Kincaid, “A Small Place”, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1988.

Rembold, Elfie, and Peter Carrier. "Space And Identity: Constructions Of National Identities In An Age Of Globalisation." National Identities 13.4 (2011): 361-377. Academic Search Premier.

Said, Edward. “Culture and Imperialism”. New York: Vintage, 1994. Print.

Uberoi, Varun, Marco Antonsich, and Tatiana Matejskova. "The ‘Parekh Report’ – National Identities without Nations and Nationalism." Ethnicities 15.4 (2015): 509-526. Academic Search Premier.

Critique of “Emergent U.S. Literatures”

            The critique regards the introduction of the text “Emergent U.S Literatures” by Cyrus R. K. Patell. He introduces the text by explaining why the term U.S Multicultural Literatures should be replaced with Emergent U.S literatures. Patell explains that emergent literatures express the marginalized cultural identities other than the Multicultural literatures that do not include the accounts of the African American literature (2). The book has a comparison of the historical aspects of the literatures produced by the Asian Americans, gay and lesbian Americans, Hispanic Americans and the Native Americans. The emergent literatures form part of the minority literatures in U.S minority literature. Patell also presents the ideas of cosmopolitanism theories. Thus, Patell expounds on the comparison of the two different types of literature, but lays more emphasis on his preferred type emergent Literatures.

            According to my analysis of the critique of Multicultural literatures by Patell, it is evident that it would not be fully relevant in having the book as U.S Multicultural Literatures. Patell explains that literature should be an instrument of cultures. Thus, the basis of the theories of cosmopolitanism lies in the essence of literature being an instrument of cultures. Literature is an institution of culture hence a form of expression for a group of people with a particular cultural identity.

            The foundation of the emergent literature by Patell lies in the analysis of the dynamics of modern culture by Raymond Williams. According to Williams, “culture is a constant struggle for dominance in which the hegemonic mainstream struggles to deal with the residual and the emergent cultural forms,” (4). The contributions of the residual and the emergent cultural forms cannot be overruled since they relate to the dominant cultural forms. They both control the meanings, values, and practices.

            I agree with Patell that none of the cultural forms is unimportant since both are major contributors to the formation of any select culture. The residual forms explain the practices based on the social and cultural formations. On the other hand, emergent forms are sites of new meanings and values, new practices, and new relationships. According to Patell, emergent literature helps to explain the changes in experiences to a more modern fashion.

            Patell is successful in expounding the impact of emergent literature to people handling literature issues. Culture should be dynamic and not as a form of sets of text. Emergent literature encourages the writers and the readers to understand the already written text and use it for the future emergent literary cultures. According to Patell, the study of emergent literature does not undermine the study of the dynamics of cosmopolitanism. Emergent literature entails close examination of a text, questioning it, and understanding the differences explained by the cosmopolitan theorists.

            As exemplified by Patell, the introduction of the Emergent U.S Literature is a vivid explanation of the need of having emergent literature rather than multicultural literature. Patell enriches his work with the ideas from other writers like Raymond who explains on “dynamics of modern culture”. The introductory text is effective in giving an overview of emergent literature by use of the ideas of multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism. According to my assessment, the introduction is rich in content that lays emphasis on emergent literature and useful for reference and research on Literatures in United States. However, the author overuses other texts with support information that may compromise the ideal message portrayed. It would be appropriate to concentrate on the key concept of comparing emergent literature with multicultural literature for the reader to have a clear understanding about it. The use of few analogies can be beneficial but should not compromise the intended message in the introduction. However, I recommend the text as a basis for reference in scholarly work regarding U.S literature.

Work Cited

   

Patell C. “Emergent U.S literatures: From Multiculturalism to Cosmopolitanism in the Late Twentieth Century”, NYU Press, 2014. ISBN 1479873381, 9781479873388. (2014) Pp.1-     19

Last Updated (Friday, 08 June 2018 05:02)